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使用鋰離子電池的幾個常見壞習慣?

2021-03-19 10:37:14 admin 6

(1)電池怕(pa)熱又怕(pa)冷




很多人喜歡把手機(ji)放在私家(jia)車里任其暴曬(shai),或為(wei)手機(ji)套(tao)上厚厚的(de)衣服,這些習慣都會(hui)(hui)損(sun)害手機(ji)電(dian)池(chi)(chi)的(de)壽命。鋰(li)離(li)子在電(dian)解(jie)液(ye)和電(dian)極片(pian)中的(de)遷移速率與溫(wen)度(du)(du)(du)(du)密切(qie)相關,溫(wen)度(du)(du)(du)(du)的(de)上下波動會(hui)(hui)顯著的(de)影(ying)響鋰(li)離(li)子電(dian)池(chi)(chi)的(de)技術性(xing)能(圖8)。鋰(li)離(li)子電(dian)池(chi)(chi)的(de)正常使用溫(wen)度(du)(du)(du)(du)為(wei)-20℃~+55℃。當溫(wen)度(du)(du)(du)(du)降到低于-20℃時,電(dian)池(chi)(chi)中的(de)電(dian)解(jie)液(ye)會(hui)(hui)凝固,電(dian)池(chi)(chi)的(de)內阻會(hui)(hui)變得無(wu)窮(qiong)大,電(dian)池(chi)(chi)將無(wu)法使用。當溫(wen)度(du)(du)(du)(du)升高(gao)到超過(guo)+55℃時,電(dian)解(jie)液(ye)會(hui)(hui)發生副反應出現大量氣體,電(dian)極片(pian)中的(de)樹(shu)脂(zhi)粘接劑也會(hui)(hui)變質,導(dao)致整個電(dian)池(chi)(chi)逐漸老化和衰退,甚至會(hui)(hui)在短(duan)時間內失效(xiao)。




還(huan)要特別注意(yi)的(de)是,我們(men)在數(shu)(shu)碼產品中使用(yong)的(de)鋰(li)離子(zi)(zi)電(dian)池(chi)工作(zuo)溫度(du)(du)一般限制(zhi)在0℃~40℃,智能手機、數(shu)(shu)碼相機中的(de)鋰(li)離子(zi)(zi)電(dian)池(chi),工作(zuo)溫度(du)(du)最(zui)好在5℃~35℃,過(guo)(guo)高或過(guo)(guo)低的(de)溫度(du)(du)都會使電(dian)芯內(nei)部無法(fa)(fa)發揮(hui)最(zui)佳狀(zhuang)態,電(dian)量將(jiang)會不斷減(jian)少(shao),供電(dian)時間不像平(ping)時那(nei)樣長,低溫狀(zhuang)態下或許還(huan)會無法(fa)(fa)充電(dian)。




(2)無需(xu)深度充放電




數(shu)碼產品的(de)說明書上,廠(chang)家(jia)都(dou)會(hui)注明鋰離子(zi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)的(de)循環充(chong)放電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)次(ci)數(shu),一(yi)般(ban)是幾百(bai)次(ci)。然(ran)而(er)很多(duo)人誤解了它的(de)含義,認(ren)為(wei)無論用了多(duo)少(shao)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)量(liang),只要插拔一(yi)次(ci)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器就(jiu)會(hui)消耗一(yi)次(ci)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)壽(shou)命(ming),每次(ci)都(dou)要把電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)量(liang)用盡(jin)才肯(ken)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。其實鋰離子(zi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)的(de)一(yi)次(ci)循環充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),指的(de)是完整(zheng)一(yi)次(ci)充(chong)放電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)過程,我們(men)假如(ru)僅使(shi)用10%電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)量(liang)就(jiu)去充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),不(bu)會(hui)有任(ren)何不(bu)良影響(xiang),反而(er)會(hui)延遲(chi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)的(de)使(shi)用壽(shou)命(ming),防止過度放電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)影響(xiang)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)壽(shou)命(ming)。




值(zhi)(zhi)得(de)注(zhu)意的是,循環充(chong)放電(dian)(dian)(dian)次數(shu)(shu)就算到(dao)達(da)廠家給定(ding)的數(shu)(shu)值(zhi)(zhi)也(ye)不意味(wei)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池就會損(sun)壞,這個(ge)數(shu)(shu)值(zhi)(zhi)只是檢測(ce)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池狀態的一個(ge)手段(duan),我們沒必要糾結(jie)于數(shu)(shu)字。還有人(ren)做過實驗(yan),將(jiang)標準的4.2V充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓改為4.1V,對同一型號電(dian)(dian)(dian)池進行循環充(chong)放電(dian)(dian)(dian)測(ce)試,最后得(de)到(dao)的結(jie)果是充(chong)放電(dian)(dian)(dian)壽(shou)命(ming)可以(yi)提高60%,換做3.9V進行測(ce)試,循環次數(shu)(shu)可以(yi)新增數(shu)(shu)倍,因此若要延(yan)遲使(shi)用壽(shou)命(ming),正確的作法應該是緩充(chong),不是深充(chong)。




(3)買(mai)來就要用(yong)




鋰(li)(li)離(li)子電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)價格不(bu)低(di),遇到(dao)打折(zhe)時(shi)需不(bu)要(yao)買(mai)上幾(ji)塊(kuai)備著呢?這顯然是不(bu)可(ke)取的(de)(de),因(yin)為首先鋰(li)(li)離(li)子電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)會自(zi)動放(fang)電(dian)(dian)(dian),每個(ge)月的(de)(de)自(zi)放(fang)電(dian)(dian)(dian)率(lv)約(yue)為2%,長(chang)時(shi)間放(fang)置不(bu)使用,電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)就會因(yin)過放(fang)而損壞,要(yao)是你(ni)有(you)很多(duo)數(shu)碼產品,別(bie)忘(wang)了(le)隔幾(ji)個(ge)月就給(gei)它們充一(yi)次電(dian)(dian)(dian),保持40%的(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)量(liang)即可(ke)(圖9)。很容(rong)易被人忽略的(de)(de)是,鋰(li)(li)離(li)子電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)是一(yi)種易出(chu)現(xian)自(zi)我損耗(hao)的(de)(de)產品,隨著時(shi)間的(de)(de)推移,電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)容(rong)量(liang)會隨著時(shi)間推移出(chu)現(xian)不(bu)可(ke)逆轉的(de)(de)物理(li)性衰減,從你(ni)買(mai)到(dao)手的(de)(de)那一(yi)天開始,不(bu)管是否使用它都在出(chu)現(xian)損耗(hao),甚至有(you)的(de)(de)產品一(yi)年就達到(dao)了(le)10%!這也提醒我們,購買(mai)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)時(shi)一(yi)定要(yao)看看出(chu)廠日(ri)期,陳年舊貨最好不(bu)要(yao)購買(mai)。




(4)別用奇怪的充(chong)電器




鴨蛋(dan)形的(de)(de)手機旅行(xing)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器,十幾元的(de)(de)座充(chong)(chong)都很常(chang)見,它們使用方便,充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)速度要還比手機自帶充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器更快(kuai)。但這些充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器沒(mei)有(you)(you)嚴謹的(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路設計(圖10),對所有(you)(you)類型的(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)一視同仁。按正規的(de)(de)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流程,鋰(li)(li)離(li)(li)子電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器首先要以恒(heng)定電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流進行(xing)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),待快(kuai)充(chong)(chong)滿時(shi)轉換為(wei)恒(heng)定電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流逐漸減小(xiao),持續(xu)一段時(shi)間后將電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)充(chong)(chong)滿。而劣質充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器使用恒(heng)定電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流方式,鋰(li)(li)離(li)(li)子電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)充(chong)(chong)滿后仍然(ran)繼續(xu)嘗(chang)試充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),假如電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)內的(de)(de)保護電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路失(shi)效,鋰(li)(li)離(li)(li)子電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)就(jiu)有(you)(you)可能鼓脹、漏液,甚至(zhi)起火(huo)爆炸。




電(dian)(dian)池安全(quan)十(shi)分重要(yao),我們(men)應選擇大品牌的(de)充電(dian)(dian)器,經過廠商認證授權或口碑出眾的(de)產(chan)品都十(shi)分可靠,在(zai)做(zuo)工或保(bao)護電(dian)(dian)路上都與(yu)一般產(chan)品有明顯不同。


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